the solubility of alkali metal hydroxide follows the order

(b) CaO                    (iii) LiOH and Mg(OH)2 are weak bases. (iv) Nitrates of both decompose on heating to give oxides.                  (v) Both LiCl and MgCl2 are soluble in ethanol. (vi) Both LiCl and MgCl2 are deliquescent and crystalline from aqueous solution as hydrates, LiCl2. 2H2O and MgCl2.8H2O. Sol: (i) All the alkaline earth metals form carbonates (MC03). The thermal stability; of these carbonates increases down the group, i.e., from Be to Ba, Li resembles Mg due to similar atomic radii and ionic radii. Matching Column Type Questions A substance which gives brick red flame and breaks down on heating to give oxygen and brown gas is Choose the correct option out of the choices given below each question. Sol: (a) Sodium carbonate is synthesised by Solvay or ammonia soda process. Further, due to small size, the hydration enthalpy of Be2+ ions is much higher than the lattice enthalpy of BeS04. As a result, BeS04 is highly soluble in water. (2).The only by product of the reaction is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Thus, Li forms only lithium oxide (Li20), sodium forms mainly sodium peroxide (Na202) along with a small amount of sodium oxide while potassium forms only potassium superoxide (K02). Q24. (a) Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A. The alkali metals are characterized by which of the following properties? Solubility of the hydroxides. All compounds of alkali metals are easily soluble in water but lithium compounds are more soluble in organic solvents. Sol: (a, b) Solubility decreases down the group because hydration enthalpy decreases more rapidly than lattice enthalpy. Although the heat of reaction of Li is the highest, but due to its high melting point, even this heat is not sufficient to melt the metal, which exposes greater surface to water for reaction. The elements are Lithium, Rubidium, sodium, Potassium and cesium. Q32. Be and Mg atoms, due to their small size, bind their electrons more strongly (because of .higher effective nuclear charge). Hence, they require high excitation energy and are not excited by the energy of the flame with the result that no flame colour is shown by them. is done on EduRev Study Group by NEET Students. a concentrated solution of NaCl), ammonia and carbondioxide are the raw materials. (iii) CaO – Manufacture of sodium carbonate from caustic soda What happens when:(i) sodium metal is dropped in water? Most salts of alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Cs, Rb) and ammonium (NH 4 +) cations are soluble… Short Answer Type Questions Which of the following alkali metals reacts with water least vigorously? (a) ionic nature of lithium fluoride. Stability of oxides decreases down the group. [Alkalies are more acidic than alkaline earth metals. The solubility of metal halides depends on their nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy of the individual ions. (iv) Ba – Insoluble sulphate (d) shining surface is obtained. (d)BaC03. Thus, Mg(OH)2 is least basic. Why are BeS04 and MgS04 readily soluble in water while CaS04, SrS04 and BaS04 are insoluble? (b) Na (c) K (d) Cs In Solvay process, ammonium hydrogencarbonate is prepared from ammonium carbonate, which then reacts with sodium chloride to form sodium hydrogencarbonate. More the lattice energy, lesser will … Due to their low solubility, some bases, such as alkaline earth hydroxides, can be used when the solubility factor is not taken into account. Q22. Due to low solubility of NaHC03, it gets precipitated and decomposes on heating to give Na2C03. Which of the following are the correct reasons for anomalous behaviour of lithium? Hydroxides of the lighter alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water, but their solubility increases as the atomic number of the metal increases. point of halides follows order: Fluorides > Chlorides > Bromides > iodides. These movements of electrons (electronic excitation and de-excitation) requires energy. Q8. Amphoteric Hydroxides. (a) BeCO3 Be > Mg > Ca > Sr > Ba. Amongst fluorides of alkali metals, the lowest solubility of LiF in water is due to Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to (a) ionisation enthalpy, (b) basicity of oxides and (c ) solubility of hydroxides. Assertion (A): The carbonate of lithium decomposes easily on heating to , form lithium oxide and C02. Sol: The hydration enthalpies of BeS04 and MgS04 are quite high because of small size of Be2+ and Mg2+ ions. (a) Beryllium is not readily attacked by acids because of the presence of an oxide film on the surface of the metal. 6s2 outer electronic configuration (c) Tendency to form hydrate decreases from calcium to barium. (c) Na2C03.H20 (c) milk of lime                                        which dissociates at 1200 K into monomer (BeCl. (a) Ca(C03)2           BeO dissolves both in acid and alkalies to give salts and is amphoteric. By adding gypsum to cement (b) Mg2+ions’ Describe two important uses of the following;(a) Caustic soda (b) Sodium carbonate   (iii) Quick lime. Delhi - 110058. Discuss the various reactions which occur in the Solvay ammonia process. (iii) Enthalpy of hydration (d) Ba(OH)2 The oxides of the alkaline earth metals (except BeO and MgO) dissolve in water to form basic hydroxides and evolve a large amount of heat. (i) As the size of.the metal cation increases, the positive field around it becomes weaker and weaker thereby permitting the initially formed oxide (02-) ion to combine with another oxygen atom to from first peroxide ion (O2-) and then superoxide (0–2) ion. (c) Ca(OH)2 (a) Be                      (d) BaCO3 Sol: (b, d) Alkali metals have high negative standard electrode potential and large atomic size. (iii) All alkaline earth metals form oxo salts such as carbonates, sulphates and nitrates. Extent of hydration decreases from Mg to Ba, i.e., MgCl2.6H20, CaCl2.6H20, BaCl2 2H20, SrCl2.2H20. (iii) Ca – insoluble oxalate (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A. (b) NaHC03             (a)    Magnesium nitrate                        Sol: Due to small size, high electronegativity and high ionization enthalpy of Be, BeCl2 is covalent and hence most soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol. Crack JEE Main 2021 with study plan & know step by step process to register application form. Q44. The reactions involved are. (a) Act as dehydrating agents. Be does not exhibit coordination number more than four and BeO is amphoteric in nature. This is because with increase in size of the halide ion, lattice energy increases. (d) It is used in the manufacture of cement. (b) BaCl2 .4H20 All alkaline earth metals (except Be and Mg) impart a characteristic colour to the Bunsen flame. Draw the structure of: (i) BeCl2 (vapour) (ii) BeCl2 (solid). Sol: The reactivity of alkali metals towards oxygen increases down the group as the atomic size increases. (i) Sublimation enthalpy This is due to the stabilization of large anions by larger cations. The compound NaNO 3 is soluble, but PbSO 4 is insoluble. (a) Tendency to form ionic/covalent compounds (c) BaS04                 (d) SrS04 (v) Carbonates and sulphates of Li decompose on heating while the stability, of carbonates and sulphates of other metals in­creases down the group. The colour of the solution is due to (iii) All alkali metals form oxo salts such as carbonates, sul­phates and nitrates. We all know that the hydroxides of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg (little, but is a strong base), Ca (a little), Sr and Ba are soluble. Metal hydroxides such as \(\ce{Fe(OH)3}\) and \(\ce{Al(OH)3}\) react with acids and bases, and they are called amphoteric hydroxide.In reality, \(\ce{Al(OH)3}\) should be formulated as \(\ce{Al(H2O)3(OH)3}\), and this neutral substance has a very low solubility.  is due to its electron deficient nature. Match the compounds given in Column I with their uses mentioned in Column II. The stability of the peroxide or superoxide increases as the size of metal cation increases. Arrange alkali metal carbonate in increasing order of solubility. Alkali metals hydroxides being strongly basic react with all acids forming salts. Sol: Due to small size and somewhat high ionization enthalpy of Be, Be(OH)2 is amphoteric in nature, i.e., it reacts with both acids and bases. Q2. The oxides are basic and basic nature increases from BeO to BaO (due to increasing ionic nature). (d) SrCl2.4H20 Amphoteric hydroxides react with both alkalies and acids. This is because of the following two reasons: The hydrates are MgCl. The order of decreasing ionisation enthalpy in alkali metals is (i) Na > Li > K > Rb (ii) Rb < Na < K < Li (iii) Li > Na > K > Rb (iv) K < Li < Na < Rb 9. To sum up the behavior of metal hydroxides in alkaline solutions, the molar solubilities of metal hydroxides in 6 and 8 M NaOH decreased in the following order which will be called reactivity toward alkali (RTA) trend: Zn(OH) 2 > Cu(OH) 2 > Pb(OH) 2 > Cd(OH) 2. How do you account for the strong reducing power of lithium in aqueous solution? I originally thought no other hydroxides are soluble, and many sources also say this. All the ions remain dissolved in solution. Q3. As electropositive character increases down the group, stability of carbonates and bicarbonates increases. Metals form basic hydroxides. Sol:(i) Both Li and Mg are harder and lighter than other elements in their groups. (ii) Since larger cations stabilize larger anions due to higher lattice energies, therefore, the stability increases from oxide → peroxide→superoxide as the size of the metal cation increases down the group and the size of the anion increases from oxide → peroxide → superoxide. Sol: (a)M+(x+y)NH3→ M+(NH3)x + e–(NH3)y (1) with Ca(OH)2 formed in eq. Q13. (iv) CaS04 – Dentistry, ornamental work. Alkali metals react with water vigorously to form hydroxides and dihydrogen. Open App Continue with Mobile Browser. (b) It is a light blue solid. ‘ (ii) Ionization enthalpy A chemical A is used for the preparation of washing soda to recover ammonia. BeO, however, is covalent and insoluble in water. (v) Sr – Crimson red Suspension of slaked lime in water is known as (b) quick lime (d) Exceptionally low ionization enthalpy. Paiye sabhi sawalon ka Video solution sirf photo khinch kar. (c) It has high degree of hydration. Q16. (a) Nitrates (b) Carbonates (c) Sulphates Answer: (a) Nitrates of both group 1 and group 2 elements are soluble in water because hydration energy is more than the lattice energy. (b) MgCl2                   Q23. diagonal relationship between lithium and magnesium. What is the chemical formula of A? Mention two such properties and give reasons for this resemblance. (d) Thermal stability of oxosalts, The basic character of the ox­ides increases down the group. Thus, Li has the most negative standard electrode potential (-3.04 V) and hence Li is the strongest reducing agent in aqueous solution mainly because of its high enthalpy of hydration. Sol: (a) Unlike other alkali metal carbonates, the carbonate of lithium decomposes on heating to form its oxide. Most hydroxides (OH -) are insoluble. Q18. (d) NaCl (c) Ca(OH)2 Granular MgO is often blended into metals-contaminated soil or waste material, which is also commonly of a low (acidic) pH, in order to drive the pH into the 8–10 range where most metals are at their lowest solubilities. (ii) The solubility of oxides of al­kali metals increases down the group. (iv) Solubility of carbonates and sul­phates decreases down the group. Some of the Group 2 metal halides are covalent and soluble in organic solvents. Q25. Their melting points and boiling points follow the trend – fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide. (i) All alkaline earth metals except Be form ionic compounds. Discuss the trend of the following: It has only four electrons in valence shell and can accept two pairs of electrons from neighbouring chlorine atoms to complete their octet. ) The basic character of oxides in­creases from MgO to BaO. The correct order of the solubility of alkaline- earth metal sulphates in water is : ... Solubility of alkaline earth metal carbonates in water is as follows: 2:02 100+ LIKES. (iii) K- Violet (c) Hydration enthalpy (d) Electron-gain enthalpy (d) Large atomic size. It has only four electrons in valence shell and can accept two pairs of electrons from neighbouring chlorine atoms to complete their octet.In the vapour state, beryllium chloride exists as a dimer (Be2Cl4) which dissociates at 1200 K into monomer (BeCl2) which has a linear shape. Arrange these in the order of decreasing solubility, and give reasons for each of the arrangement 7) In aqueous solution, the solubility of the alkali metal ions is given as follows: Li < Na Li­2O +CO2MgCO3 +Heat -> MgO +CO2Na2CO3 +heat -> no effect.The stabilities of carbonates of alkaline earth metals increase on … (iii) sodium peroxide dissolves in water? Q4. Sol: (d) Among alkali metals, melting point decreases as the strength of metallic bonding decreases with increasing size of the atom. 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